PRIME- Predicting, Interdicting and Mitigating Extremism

Research Project Name

PRIME - Predicting, Interdicting and Mitigating Extremism

Research Goal

To support the design of technologies (counter-measures and communication measures) for the prevention, interdiction and mitigation of lone actor extremist events (LOEEs), which are hard to anticipate, yet can be highly damaging to local and national communities and therefore must be addressed.


June 2014 - June 2017


Main contact: Dr. Noemie Bouhana, Department of Security and Crime Science, University College London ( 

Role of Leiden University in the project

University of Leiden will have responsibility for all parts of the work leading to the development of a subscript of lone actor attack preparations, which will contribute a major element to the integrated script of lone actor extremist events.


Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker is professor of (Counter-)Terrorism Studies at the Centre for Terrorism and Counterterrorism of Leiden University. Prior to joining the CTC and Leiden university in 2010 he was head of the Security and Conflict Programme of the Netherlands Institute of International Relations 'Clingendael'. In 1997, he defended his PhD thesis on minority conflicts in Central Europe, after which he taught classes in (international) conflict management at the Centre for International Conflict Analysis and Management (CICAM) at Nijmegen University. At the Clingendael Institute (2003-2010), his research interest shifted towards terrorism and non-conventional threat to security. At Leiden University he focuses on jihadi terrorism in Europe, radicalisation processes, and impact management of terrorism-related incidents. He has published on lone actor extremism in Perspectives on Terrorism.

Bart Schuurman is a researcher at Leiden University’s Centre for Terrorism and Counterterrorism in The Hague, the Netherlands. In 2009 he graduated with a MA in the field of international relations from Utrecht University. Since that time he has been studying a variety of topics related to contemporary armed conflicts and terrorism. His professional interests include the causes, forms and effectiveness of contemporary terrorism and counterterrorism, as well as Twentieth Century asymmetric conflicts and



The European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) (EC Grant Agreement n. 608354 (PRIME) FP7-SEC-2013-1).

Summary of Research

Summary of Research:

Funded under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), the 3-year, €2.9 million PRIME Project kicked off at the UCL Department of Security and Crime Science in June 2014. Bringing together researchers from six leading European institutions (University College London, Kings College London, University of Warsaw, University of Leiden, Hebrew University Jerusalem, and University of Aarhus), PRIME sets out to improve our understanding of lone actor terrorism and to inform the design of social and physical counter-measures for the prevention of radicalisation, the disruption of terrorist plots, and the mitigation of terrorist attacks carried out by lone extremists. In this endeavour, PRIME adopts an innovative multidisciplinary approach, which combines formal modelling techniques drawn from security engineering with relevant expertise from the ecological, social, behavioural and criminological sciences. The end-product will be a decision-support tool for end-users whose remit is to deal with the lone actor terrorism threat at the local, national or international level.

Within the PRIME Project, Leiden University’s Centre for Terrorism and Counterterrorism’s (CTC) main responsibility is to oversee the development of a detailed script outlining the manner in which lone actor extremists prepare for their attacks. This script will then be combined with those dealing with the radicalization and attack execution phases to provide a complete overview of the build-up to a lone actor extremist attack. Not only will this allow for a better understanding of such events but, crucially, it will enable the identification of suitable intervention points to prevent such attacks from occurring.

We are keen to involve end-users and subject matter experts at every stage of the PRIME Project. If you would like to take part in our validation activities or be kept appraised of our findings, please contact the Project Coordinator, Dr Noémie Bouhana, to express your interest (

Laatst Gewijzigd: 04-03-2015